Pom'Alpes

Apples : their flavour & benefits

The regular apple consumption guarantees balance and health !

 

Michard Lætitia

Dietician Nutritionist
Avenue de la république
04220 Sainte Tulle – France
N° Adeli : 049500424

 

The Apple and its benefits on health

Studied varieties : Golden delicious, Altess and Redlove according to the reports of analysis of the ISHA (10/4/2016)
– Sainte Tulle the 12/15/2016 –

 

The apple is part of the fruits most consumed in the world with an average of 20 kg per capita and a year for France.

 

A) Classification of apple :

The apple is part of the aqueous fruits with on average water 85%.
Redlove appears a little juicier with 83,8% front the Golden delicious and Altess.

 

B) Study of its composition :

Energy value in Kcal :
The strong water content of allied apple to its low level of lipids make of it an energy food not very useful for the regularization weight.
Altess by its sugar content will bring for 1 fruit of 150 G approximately 108 kcal against 95 kcal for the Golden delicious and Redlove.

Glucids :
The apple is classified among the sweetened fruits because its content glucids ranges between 10 and 15% as well as pear, greengage and the mirabelle plum.
An apple of 150 G brings on average 22 G of glucids.
The least sweetened with 15.47 G against the Golden delicious 15.67 G remain Redlove and finally the most sweetened, Altess with 17.01 G for 100 G.
Maybe for 1 consumed fruit of 150 G :
Golden delicious : 23,5 G
Redlove : 23,2 G
Altess : 25, 5 G

The flavour and the taste of apple are due to the initial content of sugars which varies according to the degree of maturation. The Altess variety seems the most sweetened.
But that also depends on the sweetening power of the glucids which compose it and whose rate increases with maturation.
The sweetening power is thus determined according to principal glucid knowing that the fructose confers an Index glycemic low than saccharose or glucose.
From where its interest for the diabétiques ones in search of food with low IG in order to as well as possible control the glycemia within the limit of the necessary quantities.

The Golden delicious shows the strongest rate of fructose (5.41 G), comes then Altess (7.12 G) and Redlove (4.75 G).
Redlove low comprises a simple sugar rate with a good distribution fructose and glucose.
The saccharose with the more sweetening power go that glucose is more present in the Altess variety.
Concerning the sportsmen, a mixture of glucose and fructose present in the apple juice are an element interesting for the installation of drink of the effort ‘house’ in particular for the sports of endurance.
It should be noted that the index glycemic low of apple in general confers to him a significant role in the control of the glycemia and the appetite (Interest of fructose in the balance of the glycemia in particular when it is associated with fibres).

Protids :
A very low content of proteins characterizes this fruit, only 1.05 G for 1 apple of 150 G for Altess, richest.

Lipids :
The lipid level is close to 0, which confers a heating low value to him.
One notes the presence of omega 3 in Redlove (10 Mg for 1 apple).
For recall, the daily requirements in omega 3 for an adult man are of approximately 2000 Mg per day.
Concerning omega 6, the rates brought by the fruit are rather weak of about 36 Mg for 1 richest Altess apple.
Omega 3 and 6 play an anti-inflammatory drug role and intervene in the prevention of the cardiovascular diseases.

Minerals and trace elements

Sodium : The average contribution is weak approximately 3 to 4 Mg with a rate slightly higher for Redlove. It can thus be consumed without problem.

Potassium : The apple is not part of the fruits richest in potassium with on average 100 Mg for 100 g.
It is however interesting to note the potassium rate present in Redlove with 141 Mg for 100 G against only 37 G for the Golden delicious and 85 Mg for Redlove.

The interest of sodium and potassium is found in the maintenance of the hydro-electric balance of the organization (to think of controlling the quantities for the modes hypopotassic).

Vitamins :

Vitamin C : Among the fruits, the apple does not show a rate of vitamin C very important but it can contribute to increase the contribution with the daily newspaper by it.
To profit from the vitamins, it is more judicious to consume the skin of the fruits.
Powerful antioxydant, the vitamin C stimulates immunizing defenses and the absorption of iron coming from the plants.
Redlove is dissociated with 17 Mg for 1 apple of 150 G against only 5.37 Mg for the Golden delicious knowing that for an adult, the ANC is of 110 Mg per day.

Beta-carotene : Carotenes are liposoluble pigments which give to the plants their color yellow-orange. Powerful antioxydant, it is preserved well at heat.
It is the Golden delicious with its yellow color which brings from there more (that is to say 0.06 Mg for 100 G) among the 3 varieties suggested, the quantity being however rather weak (average Contribution: 3.3 Mg/day for an adult).

Fibres :
The fibre rate present in apples is interesting of about 1.9 G for 100 G on average, with an important content pectin, allowing a good regularization of transit (Contribution advised out of fibres: 25 to 30 G per day).
The action is soft and nonirritating by forming a thick gel, which slows down the transit and makes it possible to decrease the absorption of cholesterol.
The apples take part in the cover of the requirements out of fibres advised to a total value of 25 to 30 G per day.

Polyphenols :
They exert an antioxydant action, the richest fruits are the grapes and the apples.
The most important rates are in the varieties Altess and Redlove with more than 1000 Mg for 100 G against only 615 Mg for the Golden delicious.
The polyphenols present in the plant enable him to be defended against the external attacks and the pathogenic elements.
Part of this family the flavonoïds are (of which the anthocyanins which give the red to the Redlove apple), acids phenolic and tannins.
The phenolic composition varies during maturation, the concentration in flavonoïds decreases during the development, the antioxydant activity decrease.
The antioxydant value is very variable according to the type of apple: it is noted that Altess and Redlove show total polyphenol rates higher than 1000 Mg for 100 G against only 615 Mg for the Golden delicious.
The varieties Altess and Redlove have a natural antioxydant potential very interesting being able to contribute to the prevention of certain diseases by their power anti-inflammatory drug and their effect on the metabolism of cholesterol.

 

General synthesis :
The apple is a beneficial food for health from its high content in water, minerals and soft fibres.
From heating low value, it profits from a favorable action on the intestinal transit time: the fibres contribute to the level of the colonist to the development of a symbiotic flora which will play a part of barrier to the pathogenic elements.
The strong consumption of plants whose apple thus plays a part in the prevention of certain cancers within the framework of a varied and balanced food.

The additional benefit relates to its content polyphenols concentrated in the skin of the apples (3 to 6 times more than in the flesh from where importance of the treatments set up).
In the form of flavonoïds, anthocyanins and tannins, they are likely to neutralize certain free radicals and to exert a role of prevention against the cardiovascular diseases.
A varied and daily consumption is thus recommended, Redlove and Altess bringing a significant rate of these elements.

Consumed in believed form, the apple obliges with a good chewing and supports a better satiety. Speed of digestion and reduction of the desires of nibbling play an interesting part in the prevention of the overweight.

Equipped with a weak index glycemic (IG<55), the apple associated with cinnamon can constitute a wise choice to help to balance a diabetes of the type 2 within the framework of an adapted mode.
To consume with the skin, place of concentration of the vitamins, polyphenols and minerals, they are critical components with a good metabolism.

Fruit of a whole life, the apple can be consumed as of 6 months out of compote during food diversification of the infant and this until the great age.

 

Characteristics of Altess :

  1. Its color yellow-lemon indicates the presence of beta-carotene, precursor of vitamin A.
    Vitamin A intervenes in the maintenance of a good visual capacity, the metabolism of iron and the operation of the immune system.
  2. Slightly richer in glucids than the Golden delicious, its balance fructose/glucose is preserved giving him a greedy flavour.
  3. Its potassium rate is 4 times more important than the Golden delicious. Potassium plays a crucial role in the muscular contraction and acts as close collaboration with sodium for a good maintenance of the acido-basic balance of the organization. It should be noted nowadays that potassium the average contribution of the French population remains insufficient (except within the framework of kidney diseases).
  4. Almost 2 times richer in polyphenols than the Golden delicious.
    Currently there does not exist ANC for polyphenols but the contribution is at approximately 1000 Mg/day. The consumption of 1 Altess apple of 100 G can bring until 1100 Mg, it thus represents a very interesting source to boost the polyphenol contribution.

 

Characteristics of Redlove :

  1. Its red outside and inside make a fruit rich in anthocyanins of it (family of the flavonoïds). These polyphenols contribute to reinforce the permeability of the blood-vessels, to fight against the free radicals responsible for cutaneous ageing.
  2. Redlove and 2 times richer than the Golden delicious and fear of contributing to the contributions advised even if it is recommended to vary the sources.
    Glucidic balance fructose/glucose is also more interesting than that of the Golden delicious.
  3. Its potassium rate is 2 times more important than the Golden delicious, 2 apples per day makes a good contribution to the cover of the needs.
  4. One can note the presence of omega 3 in small quantity for his action anti-inflammatory drug knowing that today the consumption of this fatty-acid remains insufficient (Contribution recommended according to the ANC: 2G/day).
  5. Redlove is richest in vitamin C, intervening in defense against the infections, the metabolism of iron and a better cicatrization. The contribution recommended is of 110 Mg/day for an adult is approximately 500 G of fruits per day.
    A Redlove apple of 150 G can bring up to 17 Mg of vitamin C is 15% of the daily contributions.
    A smoker must increase by 20% his consumption of vitamin C, the daily consumption of a Redlove apple of good gauge can contribute to it.

 

Conclusion :

Benefits of an apple per day :

  • refreshing, it takes part in the hydration with the daily newspaper knowing that it is necessary to reach 1.5 water L per day for an optimal hydration,
  • of heating low value, it is a true cut-hunger “allied thinness” for a balanced food (the tasting of a raw apple obliges at a degree and an important time of chewing which allows a real feeling of satiety),
  • of a good content of soluble fibres, it contributes to limit the absorption of blood cholesterol (parameter to be controlled within the framework of the dyslipidemia),
  • balanced well in fructose and glucose, its juice can use the preparation of drinks of the effort for the sportsman,
  • polyphenol rich person, genuine antioxydant natural which fights against the degeneration of the cells, it contributes to the prevention of the cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers.

 

The apple is not a forbidden fruit but a true gustatory pleasure.

 

Consumed believed with the skin after rinsing, it can be recommended within the framework of a balanced and varied food and a healthy lifestyle, in order to contribute to reduce the prevalence of certain inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity.

 

(Report written by Lætitia Michard – Dietician Nutritionist)