sustainable development1 : Sustainable development is a form of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs.
World Environment and Development Commission – 1987.


sexual trapping2 : The principle behind these traps is the attraction of destructive insects to sex pheromones (emitted by females to attract males). Once in the trap, the insects can’t get out.
This method of fighting against pests is very specific to a given pest population and is, above all, non-polluting.


auxiliary wildlife3 : This is a biological method for fighting against a destructive insect using entomophagous (insect-eating) insects or mites. The best-known example is the use of the ladybird to combat the presence of aphids.


sexual confusion4 : The sexual confusion method consists of disrupting male/female recognition by continually diffusing synthetic equivalents of the sex pheromone in the air around the plot. The males are disorientated and cannot locate the females. Mating is thus prevented, there are no destructive caterpillars and the fruit is preserved without the need for the usual chemical sprays.


organic fertilisers5 : Organic fertilisers are products made from vegetable waste or animal excrement. From this waste, terricolous animals and micro-organisms living in the soil form a mould rich in nutritious substances. Over the space of a year, the waste on a compost heap rots down and turns into a fertiliser rich in compost.


controlled atmosphere6 : The apples’ respiratory processes continue after they have been picked. This “breathing” is what causes the tissues to degenerate and the apple to rot.
The ULO conservation method keeps the apples in an atmosphere in which O2 and CO2 levels and temperature are reduced to very low levels (O2=2-3%; CO2=2-3%; Temperature: = 2°C).
These levels considerably slow the respiratory processes and thus increase the apples’ life span and maintain their freshness.


pre-grading machine7 : Sorting of apples according to three criteria: quality, the color, and gauge it.


Traceability upstream8 : The ability to trace the history of a product from a package on the customer’s premises back to a plot of apple trees.


traceability swallow9 : The ability to trace the history of a product from a plot of apple trees to a package dispatched to the customer.


HACCP10 : “Analysis of dangers and critical points in order to control them”.
HACCP is a method and working tool used to identify, assess and control significant dangers to food safety.


BRC Food Certification11 : “British Retailers Consortium”
A reference framework drawn up by some of the Anglo-Saxon hypermarket chains. The standard aims to specify the safety, quality and operational criteria that need to be put in place by firms making products intended for human consumption in order to ensure that these products are safe and healthy in terms of hygiene and food safety.


GlobalGap12 : This reference framework for Good Agricultural Practices is based on the following three principles :

  • Food safety.
  • Environmental Protection: using Good Agricultural Practices to minimise the negative effects of agricultural production on the Environment.
  • The social protection, safety and health of workers: the Eurepgap reference framework establishes a global level of minimum criteria to be followed in terms of the health and safety of agricultural workers and responsibility for social welfare issues.


Tesco Natures’s Choice13 : This reference framework was introduced by TESCO, the market leader in the English supermarket sector. It is unique to TESCO and covers the following points :

  • Reasoned use of phytosanitary products and fertilisers ;
  • Pollution prevention ;
  • Protection of workers’ health ;
  • Reasoned management of water and natural resources ;
  • Waste recycling ;
  • Preservation of animal and plant life.


organoleptic parameters14 : These are the various characteristics of the apple that are perceived by our senses (sight, smell, taste and touch). They mainly include colour, firmness, sugar level, juiciness and acidity.